The electromagnetic force holds atoms and molecules together. In fact, the forces of electric attraction and repulsion of electric charges are so dominant over the other three fundamental forces that they can be considered to be negligible as determiners of atomic and molecular structure. Even magnetic effects are usually apparent only at high resolutions, and as small corrections.

More Right Hand Rule:

When the charge is negative use the left hand instead of the right hand.

Magnetic Field Formulas (Direct from Maxwell)

These three simple formulas can be derived directly from Maxwell's fourth equation, or Ampere's Law.

Magnetic field due to an infinite, straight current filament

B is the magnetic field, in teslas. The direction of the field is tangent to a circle on a radius r (in meters) from the wire. is the permeability constant (1.26x10-6 H/m) i is the current in the wire, in amperes.

Field inside a straight, infinite, air core solenoid

B is the magnetic field inside the solenoid, in teslas. The direction of the field is parallel to the axis of the solenoid. There is no field outside the solenoid. is the permeability constant (1.26x10-6 H/m) i is the current in the wire, in amperes. n is the number of turns of wire per unit length of the solenoid, in 1/meters.

Field inside an air core toroid coil

B is the magnetic field, in teslas. The direction of the field is tangent to a circle on a radius r (in meters) from the center of the toroid. is the permeability constant (1.26x10-6 H/m) i is the current in the wire, in amperes. N is the total number of turns of wire in the toroid.

## Table of Contents

## Videos:

http://www.learnapphysics.com/apphysicsb/magnetism.phphttp://www.learnapphysics.com/apphysicsb/capacitance.php

## Explain right hand rule

This is a very good video for Right hand rule:http://youtu.be/LK7hv4LX3ys

## Magnetic field using right hand rule

for electron or proton movement.Capacitance: Introduction to the capacitance of a two place capacitor## Right Hand Rule:

## Notes:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1BaKno7lyakGufVmKqFog9NZ_flIEpRgbPPXXtJK4XLY/edit?authkey=CNukxK8FElectric Force:F(elec) = |q| E

(E is electric field strength in V/m)

Electrical Potential energy:U = -q E delta d

d is distance.

V = E Delta dQ1d1= Q2d2## The Electromagnetic Force

Watch the video below:One of the four fundamental forces, the electromagnetic force manifests itself through the forces between charges (Coulomb's Law) and the magnetic force, both of which are summarized in the Lorentz force law. Fundamentally, both magnetic and electric forces are manifestations of an exchange force involving the exchange of photons . The quantum approach to the electromagnetic force is called quantum electrodynamics or QED. The electromagnetic force is a force of infinite range which obeys the inverse square law, and is of the same form as the gravity force.

The electromagnetic force holds atoms and molecules together. In fact, the forces of electric attraction and repulsion of electric charges are so dominant over the other three fundamental forces that they can be considered to be negligible as determiners of atomic and molecular structure. Even magnetic effects are usually apparent only at high resolutions, and as small corrections.

## More Right Hand Rule:

When the charge is negative use the left hand instead of the right hand.Magnetic Field Formulas(Direct from Maxwell)Magnetic field due to an infinite, straight current filamentBis the magnetic field, in teslas. The direction of the field is tangent to a circle on a radiusr(in meters) from the wire.is the permeability constant (1.26x10-6 H/m)

iis the current in the wire, in amperes.Field inside a straight, infinite, air core solenoidBis the magnetic field inside the solenoid, in teslas. The direction of the field is parallel to the axis of the solenoid. There is no field outside the solenoid.is the permeability constant (1.26x10-6 H/m)

iis the current in the wire, in amperes.nis the number of turns of wire per unit length of the solenoid, in 1/meters.Field inside an air core toroid coilBis the magnetic field, in teslas. The direction of the field is tangent to a circle on a radiusr(in meters) from the center of the toroid.is the permeability constant (1.26x10-6 H/m)

iis the current in the wire, in amperes.Nis the total number of turns of wire in the toroid.## Labs:

Lab 1Lab 2

Lab 3

Lab 2

Lab 3